• Grades 2–4

    Core Performance Indicators:

    common to all four ELA standards

    Throughout grades 2, 3, and 4, students demonstrate the following core performance indicators in the key ideas of reading, writing, listening, and



    • Identify purpose for reading

    • Use letter-sound correspondence, knowledge of grammar, and overall context to determine meaning

    • Use decoding strategies, such as sounding out words, comparing similar words, breaking words into smaller words, and looking for word parts, such as root words, prefixes, and suffixes

    • Use self-monitoring strategies, such as rereading and cross-checking

    • Apply corrective strategies, using classroom resources, such as teachers, peers, and reference tools

    • Recognize the difference between phrases and sentences

    • Read with attention to sentence structure and punctuation, such as periods, question marks, and commas, to assist in comprehension

    • Engage in independent silent reading

    • Locate the name of the author, illustrator, title page, table of contents, index, and chapter headings

    • Recognize and discriminate among a variety of informational texts

    • Determine the meaning of unfamiliar words by using context clues, dictionaries, and other classroom resources

    • Read aloud at appropriate rate

    • Read with increasing fluency and confidence from a variety of texts

    • Maintain a personal reading list to reflect reading goals and accomplishments

    • Use computer software to support reading

    • Listen respectfully and responsively

    • Attend to a listening activity for an extended period of time

    • Avoid interrupting

    • Respond appropriately to what is heard


    • Begin to develop a voice in writing

    • Spell frequently used words correctly

    • Use basic punctuation correctly, such as

       - commas in a series, in simple/compound sentences, and in friendly letters

       - periods, exclamation points, and question marks

       - apostrophes for contractions and singular possessives

       - quotation marks for titles and simple dialogue

    • Use, in writing simple/compound sentences,

       - correct tense of regular/irregular verbs

       - subject-verb agreement

       - varied vocabulary and sentence structure

       - various parts of speech, including personal pronouns

    • Capitalize words such as literary titles, holidays, and product names

    • Write sentences in logical order and create paragraphs to develop ideas

    • Use an organizational format that reflects a beginning, middle, and end

    • Develop an idea within a brief text

    • Learn and use the writing process (e.g., prewriting, drafting, revising, proofreading, and editing)

    • Use revision strategies to develop writing, including conferring with teachers and peers, and cutting and pasting

    • Determine the intended audience before writing

    • Use legible print and/or cursive writing

    • Use word processing

    • Respond respectfully

    • Initiate communication with peers and familiar adults

    • Use age-appropriate vocabulary

    • Speak in grammatically correct sentences

    • Use gestures appropriate to conveying meaning

    • Establish eye contact, when appropriate, to engage the audience

    • Speak loudly enough to be heard by the audience