(1) How is the language of math in Latin America different from math in the U.S.?
The non-profit organization TODOS provides an excellent chart that describes several differences between U.S. and Latin American mathematical notation. (Lopez) Some of those differences are:
US: 23,450,672,918 is written with commas and is read as Twenty-three billion, four hundred fifty million, six hundred seventy-two thousand, nine hundred eighteen.
Latin America: 23,450,672,918 or 23.450.672.918 or 23 450 672 918 is written with commas or periods or spaces depending on the region. In Mexico it could also be written with an apostrophe or semicolon between the 0 and 6 to separate millions from thousands. This number is read as twenty-three thousand million, four hundred fifty million, six hundred seventy-two thousand, nine hundred eighteen.
US: – 4 represents negative 4
Mexico: – 4 OR can be used, the second notation can be confused with U.S. repeating decimal notation
US and Latin America: use these symbols for division /
Latin America: also uses : to separate numbers.