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    Reading Instruction Components:

    Phonics
    Phonemic Awareness
    Fluency
    Comprehension
    Vocabulary
     
     
     

     
    Sight Words
    1. Building Sight-Word Vocabulary: 4 Methods
      Rapid recognition of sight words is a key foundation skill that supports the development of reading fluency (Hudson, Torgesen, Lane, & Turner, 2012; NICHHD, 2000).

    2. Reading Racetracks
      Students can acquire sight-word vocabulary in a fun, gamelike format using Reading Racetracks (Rinaldi, Sells, & McLaughlin, 1997). The student reads aloud from a 'racetrack' wordlist for 1 minute, records that reading performance, and repeats the wordlist reading until reaching a pre-set criterion.
     

     
    Phonics
    1. Letter Cube Blending
      The Letter Cube Blending intervention targets alphabetic (phonics) skills. The student is given three cubes with assorted consonants and vowels appearing on their sides. The student rolls the cubes and records the resulting letter combinations on a recording sheet. The student then judges whether each resulting ‘word’ composed from the letters randomly appearing on the blocks is a real word or a nonsense word. The intervention can be used with one student or a group. (Florida Center for Reading Research, 2009; Taylor, Ding, Felt, & Zhang, 2011).

    2. Word Boxes/Word Sorts
      Young children must master phonics--the mapping of the sounds of speech to the symbols of the alphabet--before they can become accomplished readers (NICHHD, 2000). Word boxes/word sort is a one-to-one intervention that can strengthen essential phonics skills (Joseph, 2002).
     

     
    Fluency
    1. Error Correction & Word Drill Techniques
      There are several error-correction techniques and one procedure for vocabulary drill-and-practice that teachers, tutors, or parents can use with developing readers.

    2. HELPS Reading Program
      Teachers and reading researchers generally agree that the essential components of early elementary reading instruction should target phonics, phonemic awareness, fluency, comprehension, and vocabulary. However, many educators argue that reading fluency is commonly neglected as a part of a student’s core reading curriculum. As such, the primary goal of HELPS Programs is to strengthen students’ reading fluency. As students improve reading fluency, they are better able to focus on and improve other important reading skills, including comprehension.

    3. Kids as Reading Helpers: A Peer Tutor Training Manual
      While the long-term negative impact of poor readers can be enormous, the good news is that schools can train their own students to deliver effective tutoring in reading to younger peers. Kids as Reading Helpers: A Peer Tutor Training Manual is a complete package for training peer reading tutors. Peer tutoring answers the nagging problem of delivering effective reading support to the many struggling young readers in our schools. Furthermore, peer tutoring programs can improve the reading skills of tutors as well as tutees (Ehly, 1986) and - in some studies-have been shown to build tutor's social skills as well (Garcia-Vazquez & Ehly, 1995). Young children tend to find the opportunity to read aloud to an older peer tutor to be quite reinforcing, adding a motivational component to this intervention.

    4. Listening Passage Preview
      The student follows along silently as an accomplished reader reads a passage aloud. Then the student reads the passage aloud, receiving corrective feedback as needed.

    5. Paired Reading
      The student reads aloud in tandem with an accomplished reader. At a student signal, the helping reader stops reading, while the student continues on. When the student commits a reading error, the helping reader resumes reading in tandem.

    6. Reading Practice
      In this very simple but effective intervention, the student reads aloud while an accomplished reader follows along silently. If the student commits a reading error, the helping reader corrects the student error.

    7. Repeated Reading
      The student reads through a passage repeatedly, silently or aloud, and receives help with reading errors.

    8. Repeated Reading: Small-Group
      Students who need to increase their reading fluency often do well with repeated reading, an intervention in which the reader repeatedly rehearses the same passage aloud while receiving corrective feedback (Lo, Cooke, & Starling, 2011). Repeated reading has traditionally been delivered in a 1:1 tutoring setting. However, schools faced with limited personnel resources would prefer to deliver interventions in small-group format (e.g., Vaughn et al. 2003), to provide academic support to a larger number of struggling students.

    9. Accuracy Intervention: Pencil Tap
      This intervention is designed to increase self-monitoring and self-correction of errors in reading among students who read with low accuracy.

    10. Incremental Rehearsal with Sight Words
      A student is presented with flashcards containing unknown items added in to a group of known items. Presenting known information along with unknown allows for high rates of success and can increase retention of the newly learned items, behavioral momentum and resulting time on task. Research shows that this technique can be used with sight/vocabulary words, simple math facts, letter names, and survival words/signs. In addition, this technique could be used for other facts, such as state capitals or the meanings of prefixes or suffixes, etc.

    11. Listening Passage Preview
      The student follows along silently as an accomplished reader reads a passage aloud. Then the student reads the passage aloud, receiving corrective feedback as needed.

    12. Paired Reading
      The student reads aloud in tandem with an accomplished reader. At a student signal, the helping reader stops reading, while the student continues on. When the student commits a reading error, the helping reader resumes reading in tandem.

    13. Repeated Readings
      The student reads through a passage repeatedly, silently or aloud, and receives help with reading errors.

    14. Word Reading Accuracy & Fluency
      This intervention is designed to build fluency in reading and increase accuracy. This requires approximately 7 minutes each day.

    15. Prosody Intervention: Stop & Go
      This intervention is for students who read through periods or don’t pause at commas and have poor phrasing.

    16. Assisted Reading Practice
      In this very simple but effective intervention, the student reads aloud while an accomplished reader follows along silently. If the student commits a reading error, the helping reader corrects the student error.
     

     
    Vocabulary
    1.  Cover-Copy-Compare: Vocabulary
      A student looks at a vocabulary word, covers it, copies it, and then compares to see if the newly-written word is the original vocabulary word. 

    2. Error Correction & Word Drill Techniques
      There are several error-correction techniques and one procedure for vocabulary drill-and-practice that teachers, tutors, or parents can use with developing readers. 
     


    Comprehension
    1. "Click or Clunk?": A Student Comprehension Self-Check
      Students periodically check their understanding of sentences, paragraphs, and pages of text as they read. When students encounter problems with vocabulary or comprehension, they use a checklist to apply simple strategies to solve those reading difficulties. Reserve at least a full instructional session to introduce this comprehension strategy.

    2. Advanced Story Map
      Students are taught to use a basic 'Story Grammar' to map out, identify and analyze significant components of narrative text (e.g., fiction, biographies, historical accounts). Reserve at least a full instructional session to introduce this comprehension strategy.

    3. Ask-Read-Tell: Cognitive Strategy
      Good reading comprehension requires that students monitor their understanding while reading a passage. At the point of performance--when a student picks up a text and prepares to read--there are 3 crucial phases that improve comprehension (Pressley & Wharton-McDonald,1997): pre-reading (the reader creates a reading plan), reading (the reader monitors his or her understanding of the text while reading and applies strategies to clarify understanding of the text), and post-reading (the reader continues to think about the passage after reading and encode key details into long-term memory).

    4. Keywords: A Memorization Strategy
      In this mnemonic (memorization) technique, students select the central idea of a passage and summarize it as a 'keyword.' Next, they recode the keyword as a mental picture and use additional mental imagery to relate other important facts to the keyword. They can then recall the keyword when needed, retrieving the related information. Reserve at least a full instructional session to introduce this comprehension strategy.

    5. Main-Idea Maps
      This simple strategy teaches students to generate a graphic organizer containing the main ideas of an expository passage. Reserve at least a full instructional session to introduce this comprehension strategy.

    6. Mental Imagery: Improving Text Recall
      By constructing "mental pictures" of what they are reading and closely studying text illustrations, students increase their reading comprehension. Reserve at least a full instructional session to introduce this comprehension strategy.

    7. Oral Recitation Lesson
      This intervention builds student motivation and interest by having them participate along with the teacher in repeated public reading of a story across several days. Throughout the process, the entire class discusses the work as literature. Reserve several instructional sessions to introduce the steps in this comprehension strategy

    8. Phrase-Cued Text Lessons
      Phrase-cued texts are a means to train students to recognize the natural pauses that occur between phrases in their reading. Because phrases are units that often encapsulate key ideas, the student’s ability to identify them can enhance comprehension of the text (Rasinski, 1990, 1994).

    9. Prior Knowledge: Activating the 'Known'
      Through a series of guided questions, the instructor helps students activate their prior knowledge of a specific topic to help them comprehend the content of a story or article on the same topic. Linking new facts to prior knowledge increases a student's inferential comprehension (ability to place novel information in a meaningful context by comparing it to already-learned information). Reserve at least a full instructional session to introduce this comprehension strategy.

    10. Question-Generation
      Students are taught to boost their comprehension of expository passages by (1) locating the main idea or key ideas in the passage and (2) generating questions based on that information. Reserve at least a full instructional session to introduce this comprehension strategy.

    11. Reading Comprehension Fix-Up Skills: A Classroom Toolkit
      Good readers continuously monitor their understanding of informational text. When necessary, they also take steps to improve their understanding of text through use of reading comprehension ‘fix-up’ skills. Presented here are a series of fix-up skill strategies that can help struggling students to better understand difficult reading assignments.

    12. Reciprocal Teaching: A Reading Comprehension Package
      The intervention package teaches students to use reading comprehension strategies independently, including text prediction, summarization, question generation, and classification of unknown or unclear content. 

    13. Text Lookback
      Introduce the text-lookback strategy by telling students that people cannot always remember everything that they read. If we read an article or book chapter, though, and are asked a 'fact' question about it that we cannot answer, we can always look back in the article to find the information that we need. Reserve several instructional sessions to introduce the steps in this comprehension strategy.

    14. Guided Notes
      Guided Notes provide a handout of notes that have blank spaces for writing down lesson concepts, allowing the student opportunities to demonstrate appropriate classroom behavior. Notes are reviewed by the teacher, providing positive reinforcement. This intervention can be used with children of many ages (especially those in grade four through twelve), with or without disabilities. Guided Notes can be adapted to any instructional level and altered for students with specific skill deficits. Guided Notes are inexpensive, efficient, allow teachers to exhibit their own style, and are often preferred over “regular” notes by both teachers and students.